SPECIAL RELATIVITY 
And
TIME SYNCHRONIZATION 

Han Erim
November 10, 2009

May 20, 2011 (Last update) 
Copyright 2009 © Han Erim All Rights Reserved

    

  

In this essay of mine, I will tell you how the matter of time synchronization in Special Relativity should be handled. Of course, you need to have read Alice Law in order to be able to the concepts mentioned here. You need to be able to understand what I mean when I say Ghost and Spring, simultaneousness, universal clock and ruler. If you havenít read them, what are you doing here? Get out of here. Just beat it, or else I will be really mad at you.

 

Alice Law and Time Synchronization

 

I have been working on Alice Law for long years. In this period, I have reached a great deal of fresh information about it, but of course there are still a few important points which remain unrevealed. Especially my studies covering Ghost and Spring effects on which I have been concentrating recently have revealed certain points that I have been wondering about. The fact that where the observer is supposed to see the GHOST is one of the most important break points of Special Relativity in Alice Law. I could have written this essay much earlier, however, it is doubtless that it would have many defects if it had been written earlier.

 

(c+v) (c-v) mathematics proves in the beginning that clocks in systems which move with constant speed relative to each other work simultaneously without any doubt. UNIVERSAL CLOCK is valid for every system which has a uniform linear movement. In other words, all clocks on the SPRINGS will work simultaneously. However, this does not prevent us from seeing that a moving clock operates differently, or even measuring it. Here, of course, I do not mean the clocks which have mechanical defects. On the contrary, I am talking about identical watches which operate simultaneously.

 

We have seen in Ghost and Spring chapter that what we see is never the springs of the objects. Instead, we see the vision of their springs, namely their ghosts. In space deformation chapter, we have seen that ghosts are virtual reality open to every type of deformation. In Ghost and Spring chapter, we have also seen that when we look at moving systems, spring and ghost positions are at different places. When looking at a moving clock, we of course see its ghost, not its spring; the spring is not where we see the ghost.

 

We have seen in simultaneousness chapter that the events which are in front us our moving direction are observed to be faster than normal, whereas the events behind us are observed to be slower. Thus, it is obvious that we will observe this effect when we look at a moving clock.

Therefore, in order to fully understand and master the matter of time synchronization, all the information I have summarized here is necessary. I should also add this as a note that I havenít included the effects of General Relativity in what I tell here. How effective General Relativity can be on Clock Synchronization will become visible in time, as more time is spent on Alice Law.

The second matter I should mention is that force concept is not included in what is told here. There is nothing as natural as different clocks under the effect of different forces operating differently. Here, only the clocks with uniform linear movement are taken as basis and what kind of effects can be observed at a watch under the effect of Special Relativity has been explained. 

 

  

 

The animation above provides us with all information that we should take as basis on the matter of time synchronization in Special Relativity. The codes of the animation have of course been written by using (c+v) (c-v) mathematics. You can download the source codes here. (Flash CS3 ActionScript 3.0 download )

 

Letís compare the clock in ghost vision with the clock on the spring by moving the observer or the clock or the both of them in the animation. The programming in the animation has been made as follows: The vision of the clock sets off from the SPRING, travels the distance towards the observer and reaches him. The observer sees the ghost of the clock by using the information in the vision package which has reached him. We have previously learned that if the observer and the clock are in motion relative to each other, the observer sees the ghost of the clock at a different space position. 

 

In the animation, we see both the ghost and the spring of the clock, but the clock that the observer sees is only the clock in the ghost; the observer cannot see the clock in the spring. Therefore, there is only one clock for the observer, which is the one in the ghost.

 

When we compare the clocks in the ghost and in the spring, we see that they can operate in different speeds. We can also see the values of both clocks on the clocks below which stand together. They have been added to the animation in order to facilitate comparison. 
 

  • If the observer and the clock are moving closer to each other, the clock in the ghost operates FAST.

  • If the observer and the clock are moving away from each other, the clock in the ghost operates SLOWLY.

Now, letís ask our question. Do moving clocks operate differently, or not? We see that we can answer this question both with Yes and No.

 

Yes, they will operate differently. We perceive our environment the way we see it. If we see that a moving clock operates at a speed different than the speed of a clock next to us, can we say the opposite? Moving clocks always operate differently, even though they are identical.

 

No, they wonít operate differently, as what we see to operate differently is only the ghost of the clock. Every kind of deformation occurs on ghosts. Seeing a clock to operate fast or slowly is after all a perception; the clock next to us and the clock in the spring always work simultaneously. The fact that we cannot see the spring does not change this result. The clocks with uniform linear movement will operate simultaneously, no matter at which speed they move.

 

Both answers are coherent in themselves and correct. However, the latter is more accurate, in the sense that it explains the actual reason behind the event.

Letís summarize the information in Animation 1 here. For the observer, there is only the ghost clock. He cannot see the clock in the spring. There is a time difference between the clock in the ghost and the clock in the spring. The reason behind this time difference is the time which passes until the vision setting off from the spring reaches the observer. If the observer is moving towards the clock, the clock in the ghost operates faster than the clock in the spring. If the observer is moving away from the clock, the clock in the ghost operates more slowly than the clock in the spring. 

 

I should state here as a note that if the ghost clock operates faster than the clock in the spring, this does not mean that it will go forward beyond the clock in the spring in time. Such a thing can never happen, because when the ghost clock operates faster, the observer is moving towards the clock. When the observer and the clock are abreast, both clocks will show the same time value. In all other cases, the clock in the ghost is always a little behind. We can see how this happens in the animation, anyway.

 

 

Hey, what time is it there?

 

The concordance of moving systems is very important, especially in space research, navigation, communication, defense technologies. In order to maintain this concordance, the first thing to do is to ensure that the clocks in reference systems which are in motion relative to each other operate in synchronization.

 

What we see when we look at a clock in a moving system is always the clock in the ghost, no matter whether we directly witness it or watch it with advanced technological devices such as radar or telescope. As ghost clocks are open to all kinds of deformation, they will not work out and will be misguiding when they are used as reference points, due to the fact that they provide values far from reality. It is evident that synchronization cannot be maintained by taking ghost clocks as basis.

 

In order to maintain such synchronization, it is necessary to know what the clock in the spring which we can never see shows as time value and what its coordinates are, which can be done using the ghost clocks that we see. That is to say, we need to trace the ghost and reach its reality. This can only be via mathematical calculation. We can see how this should be done if we investigate (c+v) (c-v) mathematics, which is the mathematics of Special Relativity. Below we will see the explanation for this.

 

The graphic-animation above shows how to find the clock in the spring using the clock in the ghost. As we find the spring using the ghost, we need to use an opposite logic here. Let me explain the graphic to you.

 

The graphic-animation here does not illustrate an event going on in a certain period of time: instead, the event occurs at ONLY ONE MOMENT. The scroll bar only represents whether the observer is in motion relative to the clock, the observerís moving direction relative to the clock and its speed volume for that moment. We can choose any value that we want by using the scroll bar.

 

The observer has seen the clock in the ghost. We see that there is a time difference between the observerís clock and the clock in the ghost. While the observerís clock shows 8:00:00, the clock in the ghost shows a time value in the past, which is 7:58:00. This is natural, of course: the clocks in the ghost always show a time value in the past, as a certain time period is necessary to pass for the image setting off from the source to reach the observer and this period is always (t1 Ė t2). In other words, if we subtract the value shown by the ghost (t2) from the value shown by the observerís clock (t1), we see how long is the time period which passes until the image setting off from the spring reaches the observer. Here, there seems to representatively have passed a time period of 2 minutes.

 

If we multiply the (t1 Ė t2) value which we have obtained with c (speed of light constant), we will be able to calculate how far the observer sees the ghost. That is to say, we obtain the distance of the ghost from the observer. The ghost will be at d1 = c. (t1 Ė t2) distance relative to the observer. Can you answer me if I ask why? Come on, you need to know it already. The vision package coming from the spring will travel towards the observer through the observerís field and relative speed of the vision package to his field (or to the observer) will be always c. In other words, the clock in the spring has left the vision package on the observerís field at d1 = c. (t1 Ė t2) distance.

 

While the vision package which has set off from the spring towards the observer travels the distance, the clock in the spring will be in motion at Īv speed relative to the observer. For this reason, when the vision package reaches the observer, there will a difference of d2 = Īv. (t1 Ė t2) between the position of the spring and the position of the ghost. Whether the sign before V is a plus or a minus is connected with the movement direction of the observer. If the observer is moving away from the clock, the position of the spring happens to be behind the ghost (Distribution: Observer Ė Ghost Ė Spring). If the observer is moving towards the clock, the position of the spring happens to be before the ghost (Distribution: Observer Ė Spring Ė Ghost). If the observer and the clock are inert relative to each other, the positions of the Spring and the Ghost will be the same, as V value will be equal to zero. It is not important if the observer and/or the clock are in motion. The important things are the speed difference between reference systems and the direction of movement.

 

When the observer reads the clock in the ghost, what will the clock in the spring show? We donít need any calculation on this matter. The clocks which move in a uniform linear direction operate identically relative to each other. The clock in the spring and the observerís clock will always operate simultaneously. The rule of UNIVERSAL CLOCK is valid. Thatís why we were able to use (t1 Ė t2) time difference confidently in distance calculations. If this time difference were obscure, there would be no possibility for us to calculate the position of the spring.

 

Consequently, when the observer is chosen as the reference point, the distance of the clock in the spring from the observer is calculated as below.

 

 

  

d=d1Īd2= c.(t1-t2) Ī v.(t1-t2) = (cĪv).(t1-t2)

 

d = (cĪv).(t1-t2)

 

 

 

I had great enjoyment while writing this study. I guess it is one of my greatest essays.
I think this was the coronation ceremony for Alice. Donít say that there cannot be kingdom in physics, here it is.


Long Live Alice. Long Live the Queen.

  

 

 

 A new publication on this subject is launched at May 19, 2011

Alice Law & Relativity Theory article series

 Chapter 4

  What is Time Dilation and How does It Occur?

  

 

 

 

Isnít Alice Law so beautiful and attractive? Believe me when I say I donít know whether to feel sorry about physicistsí situation before Alice Law, or to laugh at them, or to be mad at them. I hope they learn and comprehend what I tell on my website aliceinphysics.com in a short time.

I feel myself very lucky for having learned many things from it until today.

 

Han Erim

 

 

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