Alice Law and The Relativity Theory

Chapter 5

What are Length and Space Contractions and How do they Occur?

Han Erim

May 23, 2011

June 8, 2011 (Updated)

What is relativity? Lets define it.

Relativity occurs due to the presence of two basic rules. The first one is that electromagnetic waves travel on the fields of objects, and the second one is that the speed of an electromagnetic wave is constant (c speed of light constant) according to the field on which it travels. If there is a speed difference between the reference systems, electromagnetic waves undergo deformation while being emitted from the source due to these two rules. Occurrence of deformation changes the energy and normal dispersion of electromagnetic waves on the field. The values observed and measured by interacting with such electromagnetic waves deviate from standard values at the rate of deformation. The name given to all of these deformation impacts is relativity. Relativity can shortly be defined as the set of deformations occurring on electromagnetic interaction.

Length and Space Deformation

In the previous chapter, we have seen how relativity causes time deformation. Just like time deformation, length and space contraction  are also the results of the deformations occurring on electromagnetic interaction. They stem from the influence of relativity on our perception and consequently, we end up seeing objects in a deformed shape. Length and Space Deformation is more reliable definition for this effect, because observing of length and space expanding is also possible.

The two principles regarding relativity are again the basis for the mechanism of Length and Space Deformation. The first of these is Ghost and Spring, and the second one is the feature of forming packages of electromagnetic waves. I have touched upon both of these principles in the chapter named Principles of Vision and Perception in Electromagnetic Interaction.

All objects have volume and occupy a certain place in space. They have width, length and height. If the information obtained from the topic Ghost and Spring is generalized for the three dimensions (width-length-height), the way length and space deformation occurs can easily be seen. Lets examine the examples below.

Animated Figure 1: In this example facing the ruler, the observer is inert. Lets write down how the action of seeing occurs step by step. Setting off from point P1 on the ruler, a signal travels towards the observer by using his field. When the signal reaches point P2, which is at the other end of the ruler, it forms a group with another signal emitted from P2 at that moment. This way, a package is formed. The two signals in the package will reach the observer simultaneously. When the signals reach him, the observer sees the ruler. As the ruler and the observer are inert according to each other, the length of the image of the ruler (ghost) and the actual length of the ruler itself (spring) are equal.

Please remember it from Ghost and Spring. The point where the signal enters the field is the place where the image will be seen. As we involve dimensions in our thinking here, we apply the same process for each of the signals emitted from the ends of the ruler. The image of the ruler will be placed between points P1 and P2. The reason why we match the signals is that we have to involve the two signals reaching the observer simultaneously in our reasoning.

Animated Figure 2: Here, the observer is moving away from the ruler. When the signal setting off from point P1 reaches the other end of the ruler, it forms a group with the other signal emitted there at that moment. However, please be careful that the point where the second signal enters the field is P3, instead of P2, due to the fact that the observer is in motion. When the signals reach him, the observer will see the image of the ruler between P1 and P3. As we see, the distance between P1 and P3 is shorter than the one between P1 and P2. Here, a case of deformation has occurred and consequently, the observer sees the ruler to be shorter.

 Alice Law The space and the objects that are moving away are contracted.

Animated Figure 3: In this example, the observer is moving towards the ruler. We calculate it in a way similar to the one above. The observer will see the image of the ruler between P1 and P3. Here, the distance between P1 and P3 is longer than the one between P1 and P2. Therefore, the observer will see the ruler to be longer.

 Alice Law The space and the objects that are getting closer expand.

Animated Figures 4 and 5: In the examples we have analyzed above, we have dealt with the actions taking place on X axis. In the case of length and space deformation, the main effect is observed behind and in front of the direction of movement. However, deformation also occurs on Y and Z axes partially. The examples given here demonstrate the outcomes of the deformation occurring on Y axis.

We apply the same principles as above. The signal emitted from P1 later forms a group with a signal setting off from P2 (we can find when and where the signals form a group by drawing an arc of which center is the observer). As is seen, the observer will not see the ruler to be vertical.

Here, I have not used a ruler symbolizing the field of the observer. P1 and P2 are two points on the field of the observer and are identified according to the reference system of the observer.

Animated Figure 6

The animation below has been prepared in the direction of the principles I have explained above. You can see where and how the observer sees the GHOST by dragging the observer with your mouse. This animation exactly reflects the actual situation of relativity. If you wish, you can change the shape of the SPRING by dragging the control points in red.

You can download the source codes of the animation here. Flash CS3 ActionScript 3.0.

The deformation on Perspective

Length and space deformation mainly occurs on the axis of movement. Here, we witness the events with a side view. However, the observer looks at the spring from the front or the rear. The animations here are two-dimensional. Composing the animations three-dimensionally is quite difficult for me. Therefore, it is not that possible for me to show you what the observer sees exactly. You need to think of this impact three-dimensionally and on a perspective. We have seen here why and how length and space deformation occurs, and what its rules are. This is actually what matters.

NEW UPDATED - JUNE 8, 2011

The following animation is the first realistic Space Deformation Relativity animation over on the world. This is the second version. You can watch the first version at YouTube, but this is much better. The animation uses hard code. I recommend close other applications before run it. You can see the deformations more clear when you decreases the speed of light.

The relationship between Doppler Effect and length and space deformation.

Most impacts of relativity are closely related to Doppler Effect. The size of length and space deformation can easily be calculated by utilizing Doppler Equalities.

Available publications dealing with this chapter on aliceinphysics.com are: Han Erim Establish: December 2001