Alice Law and The Relativity Theory   Chapter 3    Principles of Vision and Perception in Electromagnetic Interaction Ghost and Spring   Han Erim April 29, 2011 Copyright © 2011-Han Erim. All Rights Reserved.     We can see what kind of effects will we observe in relativity by examining the outcomes of (c+v) (c-v) mathematics. However, before moving on with the outcomes, I would like to touch upon the issue of vision and perception in electromagnetic interaction". This subject is of utmost importance, as if it is attempted to investigate relativity by ignoring this subject, the knowledge to be acquired will be reduced by half. Despite having studied Alice Law for a long time, I was able to grasp the importance of the issue only after years. With the inclusion of this chapter, Alice Law has achieved a significant breakthrough and all the details once missing in the Theory of Relativity have become apparent.  The spectrum of electromagnetic waves is exceptionally wide. The eye of a human being can only sense an extremely small interval on this spectrum. We call it as visible light. As we are going to discuss the phenomenon of seeing in this chapter, I will use the visible light. However, this is not a limitation; the principles to be explained here are valid for all electromagnetic waves, no matter what the wave length is and without any exceptions.   Principles of Vision and Perception in Electromagnetic Interaction   In order to say that an incident has occurred, the information about that incident departing from the area must first reach us. The primary messenger informing us about the incidents around is light, that is, electromagnetic interaction. Every object in the nature continuously emits electromagnetic waves. In other words, all objects in the nature radiate constantly. Our eyes, which are sensitive to electromagnetic interaction, receive these electromagnetic waves and this is how we see what is happening around us.   The phenomenon of seeing is directly related with relativity. We have seen in the two previous chapters that the operational mechanism of electromagnetic interaction is dependent on the rules of (c+v) (c-v) mathematics. Therefore, the mechanism of seeing is also determined by the rules of this mathematics. However, there are some additional details which should not be neglected while approaching the issue of seeing. These details are about where and how the images belonging to objects will be seen. (c+v) (c-v) mathematics provides us with this information, but in an implicit way. For this reason, these details may go unnoticed unless adequate attention is paid to the issue. It is essential to take the three principles below into consideration while investigating relativity: 1. The position of the image of a moving object and the actual position of that object are different. 2. There is always deformation on the image of a moving object. 3. The phenomenon of seeing occurs through packages constituted by electromagnetic waves.   What is meant with moving object above is an object in motion according to us; Here, I do not mean our movements.   The position of the image of a moving object and the actual position of that object are different: A signal emitted from a moving object and travelling towards our eyes has to cover the distance between the point from which it departed and our eyes. As the object from which the signal is emitted continues moving while the signal proceeds to its destination, the image of the object at the moment it is seen and the actual position of the object are always on different coordinates. You will find this topic thoroughly discussed under the title Ghost and Spring given below.   There is always deformation on the image of a moving object: In short, relativity is the deformation occurring on electromagnetic interaction. If the electromagnetic waves which bring images to us are deformed, the image they carry is also deformed and the object is perceived to be deformed at the moment of seeing. The electromagnetic waves emitted from moving objects are always deformed, and therefore, the images they carry are deformed, too. The simplest example to the deformation of electromagnetic waves would be the changes in wave length. The facts that the wave length of the light coming from the stars incline towards blue or red, and that the working speed of a clock on a satellite is different (!.. see the next time dilation chapter) than its speed on earth are two proper examples to be given within this context.   The phenomenon of seeing occurs through packages constituted by electromagnetic waves: The action of seeing is also a type of synthesis. There are many objects around us. Some of these objects are near us, while others are afar. The signals coming from objects at different places and distances reach our eyes always in the form of a package. Both a signal having set off years ago and another one emitted only a couple of nanoseconds ago can be in the same package. For instance, when we look at the stars while standing under a tree, we see not only the stars but also the branches of that tree. In any temporal section of the action of seeing, there are signals coming both from the tree and from the stars. We will see in the forthcoming chapters that the reason behind the occurrence of space and length deformation is this package form of electromagnetic waves. GHOST AND SPRING In Alice Law, electromagnetic wave sources are named as SPRINGS, while the images of objects are named as GHOSTS. The apparent position of a moving object (GHOST) and the actual position of that object (SPRING) are always on different coordinates. GHOST and SPRING is an essential issue in relativity, as the visible impacts of relativity always occur on the images of objects, namely ghosts. You should not overestimate ghosts in relativity. The only thing you need to do to see them is to look at the sky at night. None of the stars you see are where we see them. Moreover, some of them have vanished millions of years ago. However, we see them there, as if they still exist. There in the sky are actually the images of that stars, namely ghosts. It is also necessary not to put images in a template in our mind. Measuring a signal coming from a satellite, following a signal on a radar, looking at the stars with a telescope, watching a football match, watching TV, talking on a transmitter or driving a car are all based on the same principle, which is the interpretation of arriving electromagnetic waves. No matter whether we see them or we measure them, all in all we can only interact with electromagnetic waves which have reached us. If we interact with electromagnetic waves which are already deformed, this deformation naturally results in a set of differences in our perception, interpretation and measuring.    GHOST AND SPRING In this chapter, I will discuss the issue about where images will be seen. How the cases of deformation occur will be touched upon in the following chapters. Sample 1 for Ghost and Spring:   First of all, lets see Ghost and Spring clearly. Lets think of a ball in motion relative to an observer and lets write the steps of the action of seeing, how it happens according to Alice Law. (Animated Figure 1)   1) The ball is in motion. We are considering the moment when the ball radiates on (x1, y1, z1) point. 2) The signal setting off towards the observer will use the observers field. 3) During the time which passes until the signal reaches the observer, the ball continues moving. 4) The signal reaches the observer. The time of arrival for the signal is as below.                          the distance between where the signal set off (x1, y1, z1) and the observer Time of arrival = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------                                                        Speed of light constant (c) The distance travelled by the ball in the same period of time will be as follows: The distance covered by the ball = the speed of the ball X time 5) When the signal reaches the observer, the observer sees the image of the ball to be on (x1, y1, z1) coordinate. 6) The ball is on (x2, y2, z2) coordinate at the moment when the observer sees the image of the ball. 7) At the moment of seeing, while the image seen by the observer (GHOST) is on (x1, y1, z1) coordinate, the ball (SPRING) is actually on (x2, y2, z2) coordinate. Consequently, if movement is involved, Ghost and Spring are always on different coordinates. What we see is always the ghost, and the spring of an object can never be seen (even if the object is inert). Selecting the Reference System    In daily life, we watch the events around us from a reference system belonging to ourselves. We describe, explain and interpret these events from our own perspective. This is an ego-centric reference system. We can include the example above in this category, as the reference system of the observer and our reference system were inert relative to each other. However, it is sometimes necessary in physics to understand in how an event appears from a different reference system. In this case, we need to relocate our reference system and think accordingly. Looking at events from a different reference system is something which we generally are not accustomed to, and therefore it is difficult. However, this is something essential and such examinations are very important especially for relativity.    Sample 2 for Ghost and Spring:    Now, lets turn the sample above upside down. Lets think of a situation in which the observer is in motion while the ball is inert and understand where the observer sees the ball. Again, we are listing the steps for the action of seeing (animated figure 2).    1) The observer is in motion. We will take the moment radiate when the ball is on (x1, y1, z1) point according to the observer into consideration. The point from where the signal departs will be (x1, y1, z1) coordinate according to the observer. 2) The signal setting off towards the observer will use the observers field. 3) As the observer is in motion, he carries his field with him, in the same direction with his movement. Thus, the signal travelling on the observers field will be carried by the observers field, in the same direction with his movement. 4) The signal reaches the observer. The time of arrival for the signal is as below.                            the distance between where the signal set off (x1, y1, z1) and the observer Duration of arrival =--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------                                                           Speed of light constant (c)   The distance travelled by the observer in the same period of time will be as follows: The distance covered by the observer= the speed of the ball according to the observer x duration 5) When the signal reaches the observer, the observer sees the image of the ball to be on (x1, y1, z1) coordinate. 6) The ball is on (x2, y2, z2) coordinate according to the observer at the moment when the observer sees the image of the ball. 7) Consequently, when the image of the ball (GHOST) is on (x1, y1, z1) coordinate according to the observer, the ball (SPRING) is actually on (x2, y2, z2) coordinate. Please notice that (x1, y1, z1) point is defined in accordance with the observers reference system (according to the observers field). The movement of the observer does not change the location of that point, which is defined in accordance with him. The place where the signal enters the observers area of vision, this point is at the same time the place where the observer sees the image of the ball. Through this example, I wanted to show you how it is to use FIELD CONCEPT in relativity, and how much it makes everything easier. Without referring to field concept, it is really difficult to say where the observer sees the image of the ball. Summary of the Chapter   Lets think of two objects named as A and B, which are in motion relative to each other and assume that we are on one of those objects. Let that object be A. Can we state the speed of object A, on which we are? No, of course we cannot, as we cannot know whether we are in motion or not without applying to another reference system. As there is only B in the example given here, we can state our speed relative to B. On the other hand, we can also consider ourselves as inert and claim that object B is in motion. We can also construct the reasoning for object B, which we have constructed for object A. We can say that B is inert and A is in motion. In the first example given above, the observer was inert and the ball was in motion. Whereas in the other example, the observer was in motion, and the ball was inert. In both cases, the observer sees the image of the ball on ((x1, y1, z1) point. These two cases are completely identical. It does not matter which one is in motion, either the observer or the ball, or even both of them. The only thing that matters is that two reference systems are in motion relative to each other (animated figure 3). The sample on the right clearly exhibits how (c+v) (c-v) mathematics works. Although not clearly seen in the first look, the sample on the left also harbors (c+v) (c-v) mathematics. The difference in appearance stems from which reference system we observe the incident. The behavior of light is determined by the same type of mathematics in both samples, which is (c+v) (c-v) mathematics. Two Important Physics Postulates on which Alice Law is Based I would like to mention two physics postulates by Albert Einstein, as they are of vital importance.   The theoretical foundation of Alice Law is laid on two physics postulates which were also taken as basis by Albert Einstein while composing the theory of Special Relativity. Written by Einstein himself, these two postulates are: THE PRINCIPLE OF RELATIVITY The same laws of electrodynamics and optic will be valid for all frame of reference for which the equations of mechanics hold good.    UNIVERSAL SPEED OF LIGHT The light is propagated in empty space with a definite velocity c which is independent of the state of motion of the emitting body.   You can think that especially universal speed of light postulate contradicts with Alice Law. However, the case is not so. As is seen, Albert Einstein used the phrase empty space while defining the speed of light. Alice Law shows that each object has a private space which belonging to itself. These private spaces are FIELDS, as we have seen beforehand. The meaning of this postulate for Alice Law is: The light is propagated in a field with a definite velocity c which is independent of the state of motion of the emitting body". Therefore, this postulate is not wrong or contradictory for Alice Law. Additionally, there are extremely important acknowledgements in Universal Speed of Light postulate, and these acknowledgments are of utmost importance for Alice Law. Firstly, it is accepted in the postulate that speed of light (c) is a universal constant. It is a fact that (c+v) (c-v) mathematics is directly dependent on speed of light constant. It is not possible to mention (c+v) (c-v) mathematics without defining speed of light constant (c). Secondarily, speed of light has to be independent on the speed of the source from which it is emitted, and this is also how it has to be for Alice Law (as also seen in this chapter). Therefore, Universal Speed of Light postulate by Albert Einstein involves important acknowledgements necessitated by Alice Law. The principle of relativity is a strong acknowledgment for Alice Law, which binds it to Classical Mechanics. Alice Law definitively accepts in all stages that it will comply with the Principle Of Relativity.   It may be possible to construct Alice Law without these two postulates mathematically, but it is not possible to construct its theory without them. Please note: The theoretical explanation of the REFERENCE FIGURE I have used in the first chapter of this series of articles is only possible with these two postulates, as it was in the past. The fact that these two postulates enable the construction of Alice Law makes it a theory on solid foundations right from the beginning. In my essay named The First Paper (Oct 23, 2000), which constitutes the beginning of Alice Law, and in all the software belonging to Alice Law, you can see how delicately these postulates are adopted. Available publications dealing with this chapter on aliceinphysics.com are: Establish: December 2001 Copyright © 2000-2011. Han Erim. All Rights Reserved.