RELATIVE VELOCITY OF LIGHT and THE FINAL PROOF OF ALICE LAW Han Erim   First release March 2005  (From Alice Law Version 5 Physics program) Reprinted for the web.  23 August 2011  Copyright 2005 © Han Erim All Rights Reserved In the previous part, we have seen that the light emitted from the source did not travel to the vehicles with the velocity "c". In this part we are going to see at what velocity the light travels to the vehicles and in the latter parts I will explain you why the photon behaves like this. And in the "General Relativity" section the behavior of photon issue is going to continue. Animated Figure 1 -Since we obtain the result that the light (photons) travels to the observers in the vehicles with different velocities, I think that a question such as if there is a mistake in the physics postulates of Albert Einstein comes to your mind. I immediately remind you that the proof in the 1st part was based on his postulates. It is impossible to do the proof in the 1st part without his postulates. Thus, if we suggest that his postulates are wrong, we make the basis of the proof invalid and the proof becomes eliminated. In this level we have to think different and look for the existence of a mathematical solution that holds true his postulates for every reference frame. If there is such a solution, this should be the one that leads us to the true path and to the real solution. Now if you allow me, let's study his postulates once more and more carefully. Since I have to tell my own ideas I big your pardon. THE FIRST PHYSICS POSTULATE Principle of Relativity :The same laws of electrodynamics and optics will be valid for all frames of reference for which the equations of mechanics hold good.  First of all this physics postulate expresses that it agrees with all the knowledge accumulation that physics has developed from the past up to date (postulate has been published in 1905). We can summarize this accumulation as Laws of Classical Physics. Postulate claims that these laws are invariable for all the reference systems. Additionally it says that like the laws of Classical Physics all the laws that belong to the Electromagnetic Theory is invariable for all the reference systems. I personally think that this postulate has certain logical truth and I find it very important. In my opinion there is no possibility of having logical inference without relying on this postulate. When you accept this postulate you explicitly start to express that a physical law which is valid in your own reference system should be valid in another reference system. It is not possible to claim that two identical clocks you have put on the same table should work simultaneously without accepting this postulate. And it is not possible for someone who does not accept this postulate to prove that both of the clocks will work simultaneously. This postulate makes the physics understandable, expressible and consistent. THE SECOND PHYSICS POSTULATE Universal Velocity of Light: The light is always propagated in empty space with a definite velocity c which is independent of the state of motion of the emitting body. Of course the real surprise is here. First of all regarding that Albert Einstein has expressed this postulate by gaining strength from experimental data, thousands of scientists in his time have thought about his ideas and had to accept his postulate. We see that it is not very easy to deny this postulate. Moreover just like in the past we have infinite number of experimental data that supports the postulate today. I should say that this postulate has great importance for Alice Law. With this postulate Alice Law is able to exist and express itself. Since I have written my opinions about this postulate more detailed at the end of this chapter I will keep it short here. First of all let's study what this postulate means. We can gather the requirements for this postulate in two main topics: 1) The velocity of light should be measured "c" in vacuum, namely a constant. 2) The velocity of the emitted light should be independent of the motion of the light source. Animated Figure 2 - Since we have to measure the velocity of light in vacuum, according to the postulate we can assume that the events in the figures take place in vacuum. The background has no importance. The vehicle in the figure travels with a constant velocity. Let the observer in the vehicle determine that both of the lights enter into the vehicle simultaneously from the front and the back sides at time t1 and reach him at time t2 simultaneously. According to the postulate if the observer measures the velocity of light he will use his own timer and his own ruler and will make the calculations according to the equation above. (Velocity of light = the distance light has traveled / time of travel) Since it has certain experimental accuracy, let's assume the result of the measurement above as a reference point. Thus necessarily we accept that the velocity of light should be measured as "c". Animated Figure 3 - Let's combine the situation of the observer in the vehicle with the proof of the 1st part of the Alice Law. The observer is measuring the velocity of light that travels towards him as "c", but on the other hand if we think with respect to our reference system we find out that the velocity of the light (photons) that travels to the vehicle is not "c". Then we can have the following suggestion: Let the velocity of the vehicle be "v" with respect to our reference system. Additionally let's assume that the velocity of the photons that enters into the vehicle from the back side is (c+v) and from the front side is (c-v) with respect to our reference system. Thus, although the velocity of the lights that travels into the vehicle is not "c" with respect to our reference system, the observer in the vehicle will always measure the velocity of light that travels toward him as "c". Now we must understand if this solution will lead us to the result or not. Animated Figure 4 - We show the time-distance graph of a vehicle that travels with a constant velocity as above. I ask you to watch the animation by dragging the button below up and down with the help of computer's mouse. Animated Figure 5 -We can show the same graph upside down, too. I will use the graph in this fashion in the proof. The graph here also shows the time-distance graph of the photons that emitted from the source on the left side. (The red line)   Thus, we can see the position of both of the vehicles and the light with respect to time in the same graph. THE PROOF OF RELATIVITY OF VELOCITY OF LIGTH Animated Figure 6 - Explanation of the Graph I ask you to study each position of the vehicles and the light by dragging the vehicle you see up and down. If the time for turning on the lights is set such that the center of both of the vehicles are at the axis of symmetry as shown here...   At time t1 the lights (photons that travel with (c+v) and (c-v) velocities) must reach to the front and back of the vehicles simultaneously. At time t2 the lights reach to the center of the vehicles simultaneously and the observers in the vehicles see both of the lights turned on. At time t3 the lights reach to the opposite sides and leave the vehicles. The black lines that pass through the centre of the vehicles show the time-distance graph of the vehicles. We already know that the photons emitted from the sources travel to the observer on the ground with the velocity "c", namely constant. The red lines show the time-distance graph of these photons, which travel with the velocity "c".   During the time in the graph the vehicles have moved 3 squares. According to this, from the end of the red line up to 3 squares forward represents the time-distance graph of the photons that has travelled with the velocity (c+v) and from the end of the red line up to 3 squares backward represents the time-distance graph of the photons that has travelled with the velocity (c-v).   The representation of the time-distance graphs that belongs to the photons and the vehicles with the straight lines shows that all the movements in the figure are uniform. In a situation where the vehicles were accelerating these lines would be curved).   You can move the vehicles to any position you like with the help of the mouse and by dragging the button located on the right up and down. You can use the view button to display the top or side view. Other buttons are helpful to analyze the graph.   Proof  For both of the observers in the vehicles to see the lights turned on, the lights must be turned on just the time when the center of both of the vehicles reach to the axis of symmetry. Thus there is only one choice of the moment for the lights to be turned on. At the moment when the observers in the vehicles see that the lights are turned on simultaneously, they are on the right and the left side of the axis of symmetry with respect to the observer on the ground. The situation shown by the graph proves the existence of (c+v) (c-v) in nature, and proves that the light behaves as explained. Achieving the Light Postulate of Albert Einstein It was shown that both of the observers in the vehicles would measure the velocity of light as "c" when (c+v) (c-v) assumption is made. Thus the 1st requirement required by the postulate is met. The 2nd requirement required by the postulate, the independence of the velocity of light from the velocity of its source, is already met from the beginning by the (c+v) (c-v) assumption. Because in the (c+v) (c-v) assumption we assume that whatever the velocity of the emitting source is, photon will travel with the velocity "c" with respect to the target object in the Achievement of the Principle of Relativity: Let's see that the Principle of Relativity, which is Albert Einstein's 1st postulate, is also achieved. In the (c+v) (c-v) solution every reference system will measure the velocity of light that comes to itself constant, namely "c" . On the other hand, when it measures the velocity of light that travels to another reference system other than itself, if the other reference system is in motion with respect to itself, it will find out the velocity of light that travels to the other reference system different. The same rule is valid for all the reference systems. At the moment there is a necessity for a terminological term that will be able to define such behavior of light. For this purpose I say that the velocity of light is "RELATIVE". With this term, I emphasize both the constant property of light in our own reference system and the non-constant property between different reference systems at the same time. Since we know at what velocity the light travels towards other reference systems, we have come to a point where we can explain the term "SIMULTANEOUS". You may find this subject in more detail in the Special Relativity part of the Alice Law. The two proofs that are called the Main Proof and the Final Proof of the Alice Law are the new basis of the Special Relativity Theory. These proofs show what the Special Relativity is in more detail and more accurately by extracting the mistaken parts from the present theory. Of course the results of these proofs let a lot of new inferences to be made in physics. You will find some of them in the Alice Law. About Albert Einstein's 2nd Postulate Universal Velocity of Light: The light is always propagated in empty space with a definite velocity c which is independent of the state of motion of the emitting body. The science of physics is analogous to a stone wall that is being constructed. Every stone that is placed onto the others gets its strength from the other stones that have been placed before and stands with them. The stones that Albert Einstein had placed on the wall has become the stones that the Alice Law got its strength from and risen on. Although the proofs called the Main Proof and the Final Proof of the Alice Law indicate some mistakes of his theory, I want my readers to be aware of one thing. In the Alice Law there is no part that does not rely on and does not get its strength from him. We will meet his work wherever we look. Since the Science of Physics is not stationary, it is natural to have some changes in the present theories by time. Now if you let me I would like to tell my opinion about his "Light Postulate". The most important property of this postulate is that it has an extraordinary power that carries the physics to the future. This postulate is the only tool that we have in our hand to show the existence of FIELD and to prove that they play an effective role in physics phenomenon. It is not possible to understand what function the field has in physics phenomenon without this postulate.   While you read the Alice Law and start to think with the fields on your mind, you will not find these two proofs that might have surprised you at the moment surprising anymore. Now I want to show you how (c+v) (c-v) takes place briefly. Animated Figure 7 - Let the Black King and Alice be two reference systems. Every object has its own FIELD and fields are real physical objects just like mass. Actually this is a known fact however adequate importance has not been given to their existence. Mass and the field form an inseparable whole. If the object moves, the field of the object moves with it. Animated Figure 8 - In our regular life we do not see the fields. There are fields in the places where we call as space and physics phenomenon take place in these fields. Since both of the reference systems are stationary with respect to each other, the velocity of the photon is "c" with respect to both of the reference systems. Animated Figure 9 - If the Black King moves, the velocity of the photon that travels towards the Black King is (c+v) with respect to Alice's reference system and c with respect to the Black King's reference system. Because here the photon travels in the field of Black King and the velocity of the photon with respect to Black King's field is "c". The movement of the field which belongs to the King with a velocity v is the reason for (c+v). You will see the importance of understanding the fields and how the fields affect the physics phenomenon in different parts of Alice Law.   -----   From Alice Law Version 5 Physics Program. Release March 2005 Part: Relative Velocity Of Light Establish: December 2001 Copyright © 2000-2011. Han Erim. All Rights Reserved.