Han Erim

April 4,  2016 

Copyright 2016 © Han Erim. All rights reserved.



The objective of this article is to identify what sort of a measurement would prove the validity of (c+v) (c-v) mathematics for Electromagnetic Theory.

Solution: In order to prove the existence of (c+v) (c-v) mathematics, it would be enough to experiment that two signals emitted reciprocally and simultaneously from two frames which are in motion relative to each other reach those two frames again in simultaneity. The theory of the measurement is based on a principle of physics, which, along with its relationship with (c+v) (c-v) mathematics, covers most of this article.


A Principle of Physics: 

Imagine two different reference systems in uniform linear motion relative to each other. Each reference system would have to right to say the following: "My reference system is inert. It is the other reference system that is in motion."

This principle is independent from the speed values and movement directions of the two reference systems as well as the distance between them. Figure 1




(The axes of coordinate shown in the figures demonstrate the reference system on which our assessment is based.)




The following rule can be defined based on the principle mentioned above: Two signals which have been emitted reciprocally and simultaneously from Frame A and Frame B, which are in uniform linear motion relative to each other, are going to reach the Frames again in simultaneity.


The speed of the frames, their movement directions or the distance between them cannot change this rule. Figure 2


The relationship between the principle and (c+v) (c-v) mathematics.

As a conclusion, if two signals are emitted reciprocally and simultaneously from two frames that are in uniform linear motion relative to each other, these two signals are supposed to reach the frames again in simultaneity. A measurement based on this condition would enable us to test the validity of the Rule and therefore the validity the Principle. This measurement will at the same time help prove the existence of (c+v) (c-v) mathematics. Let me move on by dividing the topic into two titles:

1) Incoming signals. Pointing out the simultaneity of the signals in terms of arrival time
2) Outgoing signals. Obtaining (c+v) (c-v) mathematics



1) Incoming Signals: The signals are going to arrive at the frames at the same time.

Figure 3 shows that the signals are supposed to arrive at both frames at the same time.



2) Outgoing Signals. Obtaining (c+v) (c-v) mathematics.

(c+v) (c-v) mathematics can be obtained when the signal speed is analyzed by taking the reference system of the Frame that emits the signal. Figure 4 and Figure 5






Obtaining (c+v) (c-v) mathematics by measuring the signal speed directly.

It is certainly possible to directly measure the speed of a signal travelling towards a moving object. However, in order to obtain (c+v) (c-v) mathematics, the measurement must be done from where the signal is emitted (Figure 4 and Figure 5). The following example might help me clarify that situation for the last time. Imagine a signal emitted from a transmitter on the ground and travelling towards a plane on air. If the speed of the signal is measured from where the transmitter is located, the speed value will be found as either (c+v) or (c-v) (Figure 4 and 5). Nevertheless, if the same measurement is carried out on the plane, the speed of the signal emitted from the transmitter below will be found as "c" (Figure 3). Therefore, the measurement must be done from where the signal is emitted. Figure 6


It is quite difficult to directly measure the speed of the signal by taking the transmitter’s side, as it is a must to precisely know the coordinates of the moving frame at the moments when the signal is emitted and received. An additional difficulty emerges at this point, since the “actual coordinates” of a moving object and its “image coordinates”, which involve the image of the object, are at different places. If the location of the moving object is calculated through the image coordinates, the measurement will be incorrect and the result obtained will be inaccurate. It is the actual coordinates that ensure (c+v) (c-v) mathematics and it is absolutely obligatory to utilize the actual coordinates. Figure 7




Just a suggestion: It might be possible to conduct direct measurement through the use of the spacecraft sent to the space. There is a difference of five seconds between the arrival of a signal sent at c speed and the arrival of a signal sent at (c+v) speed to Voyager I, which is now 134.289 AU far away from the Earth and is still moving away at 30 km/sec speed. I do not know if it would be possible; but if it is; then it must be measured. On the other hand, it is a clearly known fact that the speed of the signal emitted from Voyager I is (c+v) relative to the reference system of Voyager I. In order to be able to see that, it is enough to utilize the Principle and to imagine Voyager I were inert and that the solar system and the Earth were moving away from it.

It is also possible to obtain (c+v) (c-v) mathematics through Byte Shift measurement. Thanks to the fact that it provides results with extreme precision, Byte Shift might indeed be an appropriate method to utilize, although I am not planning to go into the details of that issue in this article.

The measurement method I am suggesting here seems to be the simplest and the easiest, since where the frames are, at what speed and in which direction they travel or how much the distance between them is do not matter. The only thing to do is to emit the signals from each frame simultaneously and to determine how much time it takes until the signals are received. However, an extremely significant question arises at this point: How can we be sure that both signals are emitted in absolute simultaneity?



(c+v) (c-v) mathematics, The Theory of Relativity and Simultaneity


Imagine that this measurement had been conducted in around 1900-1905, when The Theory of Relativity had not been born yet. If the existence of (c+v) (c-v) mathematics had been confirmed by then, The Theory of Relativity would not exist today.

If we had conducted this measurement in early 1900s, we would have thought that the clocks we had placed on Frame A and Frame B would have worked in simultaneity, regardless of the speed values of the Frames; we would have had absolute confidence in the moments when the signals had been emitted and received. Then, we wouldn’t have the idea that “Moving clocks work more slowly”, which is an outcome of the Theory of Relativity. As our topic is the measurement of (c+v) (c-v) mathematics, we do not need to have any concern regarding the ticking intervals of the clocks placed on Frame A and Frame B. We must carry out this measurement by assuming that the clocks would work simultaneously, no matter what the speed values of the Frames are.

Right at this point, I need to note that the outcomes of (c+v) (c-v) mathematics involve the fact that a clock moving away would be measured/observed to work more slowly, whereas a clock moving closer would be measured/observed to work faster. If the clock signals sent from Frame B were measured when they are at Frame A, the ticking intervals of the clock placed on Frame B would be found to stretch as far as


tB= tA . (c+v)/c

(since the Frames are moving away from each other). If the Frames were moving closer to each other, the tickings of the clock placed on Frame B would be found to shrink as short as


tB= tA . (c-v)/c


However, as seen in the equations, this difference stems entirely from Doppler Shift. A real effect changing the operation speed of the clocks does not exist for (c+v) (c-v) mathematics.

(c+v) (c-v) measurement must be carried out by deliberately ignoring the Theory of Relativity and excluding all the logical assumptions belonging to it. Any concern related to the simultaneity of the signals is irrelevant and unnecessary.




Measuring (c+v) (c-v) mathematics.

This part, which is entirely a matter of engineering, is of course out of my domain of knowledge. However, on an intellectual level, I assume that two planes equipped with the necessary hardware can be used for this measurement. In accordance with the Principle, the speed values of the planes, their movement directions or the distance between them do not matter; it is totally enough if they have a linear movement.

To provide an example, let’s imagine that the planes emit a signal once in every 5 minutes and that they keep the track of the arrival moments of the signals they receive. As shown in the table below, the comparison of the arrival times of the signals would provide us with the necessary outcome. It must be seen through the comparison that the arrival times are equal. It has been stated above that when the equalities are achieved, (c+v) (c-v) mathematics will be confirmed (Figure 4 and Figure 5).



1st Airplane and 2nd Airplane

The moment of signal sending


1st Airplane

Signal Arrival Time 


2nd Airplane

Signal Arrival Time picoseconds 

































The table symbolizes the signal records between two planes moving away from each other at 600 km/h speed, starting at a distance of 100 km.



About the Measurement

I would like to note that it is impossible to refute the Principle, and accordingly, the Rule, since the Principle is an old, strong and deep-rooted one. Therefore, this article is in fact the proof of (c+v) (c-v) mathematics through logic. I would sincerely appreciate it if you could realize it. Nevertheless, there is no doubt that it requires measurement and confirmation. 


Through time, I have had to redefine Alice Law in accordance with the way it has progressed. Here is how it was defined in April 2016:

Alice Law is the Electromagnetic Theory that bases itself on (c+v) (c-v) mathematics.

I kindly need your cooperation to achieve the experimental confirmation of Alice Law.

Han Erim


























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