BYTE SHIFT
HELLO WORLD

November 3, 2015

In my this article, I will explain an interesting situation which I call BYTE SHIFT that is seen when wireless connection is done with moving reference systems.

First of all, the case how wireless connection is done should be explained. In wireless communication, data is transferred by electromagnetic waves. Every signal has a frequency and related to the frequency has a specific wavelength. There is such a kind of relationship between the frequency and wavelength of the signal:

The constant of speed of light = frequency x wavelength

Message transfer is done in such a way: the device which will send the message turns the message to a continuous chain that consists of 0 and 1 and converts the message to electromagnetic signal and the sends them in order. The receiver perceives the electromagnetic signal and receiving the message in order, turns the signal back to message format. Every component of wave belonging to the signal (the part that is equal to the wavelength) forms on of the rings of chain that creates the data and carries the 1 Bit data. So, it carries the value 0 or 1. In order to express an alphabet character, 8 Bits is needed. The data that is formed by placing 8 Bits side by side is called a Byte. DOPPLER SHIFT ON THE SIGNAL

We know that Doppler Shift occurs on the electromagnetic waves which are going to the moving target. Doppler Shift is seen by the effect caused by the change of signals wavelength (signal frequency changes, too). If the moving target is going away Doppler Shift occurs in the positive side, if the target is coming closer Doppler Shift occurs in the negative side. Changes in the wavelength are defined in the equation below: You can reach the detailed information about the Doppler Shift from the links below:
1) Doppler Shift
2) Alice Equation

The value v in the equation above can be defined as the speed (velocity) of the reference systems with respect to each other sending and receiving the signals. But this is not the case actually. You can find the complete information about this topic in the paper Alice Equation.

Dealing with what kind of deformation caused from Doppler Shift the message HELLO WORLD which was sent from a transmitter was exposed to while the message is going to the moving targets, will directly give us the explanation and information that is needed for our topic. Assume that, we have two planes flying in reverse directions and then we send the message "HELLO WORLD from a transmitter (Figure 3). Assume that, when the planes arrived to the Meeting Point, (at this point the receivers on the planes will be in equal distance to the transmitter), the message had arrived to the planes. Lets see and calculate what kind of effect Doppler Shift had on the Bits carrying the data (and on the Bytes related).

The EXCEL table below makes all the necessary calculations needed to discover what happened. Please see the table below now.

 BYTE SHIFT You can download the Excel file of this table from here: Plane Speeds (as MACH) 2,5 Signal Frequency (GHz) 3,18 Transmitter distance (kilometers) 500 Speed of light 299792458 Plane Speeds  (MACH Value x (340 Meters/second)) 850 Transmitter distance (Converted to millimeters) 500000000 DOPPLER SHIFT ON THE SIGNAL We assumed that transmitter is stationary. All λ values are in millimeters If receiver is stationary Wavelength will be λ0 = speed of light/(Signal Frequency*100000) 94,27435786 Wavelength of the signal for the outgoing plane:  λ1=λ0 . (c+v)/c 94,27462516 Wavelength of the signal for the incoming plane:  λ2=λ0 . (c-v)/c 94,27409057 At The Meeting Point How many bits fill the distance between transmitter and receivers? (Length of 1 Bit  = λ) n0 bits for a non-moving target  (n0=distance/λ0) 5303669,114 n1 bits for outgoing plane  (n1=distance/λ1) 5303654,076 n2 bits for incoming plane  (n2=distance/λ2) 5303684,151 How many Bits shift between incoming- outgoing planes? = (n2-n1) 30,075 How many Bytes shift? = (n2-n1)/8 3,759366377 SIGNAL "HELLO WORLD" Numbers of Char 11 Numbers of Bytes 11 Numbers of Bits (1 Byte = 8 Bits) 88 Total signal length for out going plane in the sky = λ1 * Numbers of Bits /1000 (meters) 8,296167 Total signal length for in coming plane in the sky = λ2 * Numbers of Bits /1000 (meters) 8,296120 Length between shifted bits at the Meting Point = n1 . (λ1-λ2) / 1000 (meters) 2,835 On the figure above that was prepared by the values calculated on the table, how Byte Shift happened can be seen. At the meeting point the receivers of the planes are at equal distance from the transmitter. But, the wavelength of the signal transmitted from the same source will be different for the two planes because the planes are going in different directions. The difference of the wavelengths, caused the difference of 2.835 meters between the places of the signals at the meeting point on the sky, and as a result of this, the receiver of the plane that is moving away receives the character L, while the receiver of the plane that is coming closer receives the character W. So, the situation Byte Shift has came out.

How nice, just writing equations for some lines, we have buried the Electromagnetic Theory to the grave. And now, lets cover the coffin with earth: if the speed of the electromagnetic wave was constant with respect to all reference systems, in this case at the Meeting Point, the difference of 2.385 meters should not have occurred and the receivers of both planes would receive the same character of the message Hello World. But, we see that this is not possible. There is a very big imperfection, an important mistake in Electromagnetic Theory.

What is better is, we have the needed technology to make the measurement in Figure 4 with very high precision. This measurement will be done in one day absolutely. I would be in a hurry, if I had been in the place of scientists and physicists.

Up to today from the year 2000, in all the versions of Alice Law programs, I told you how should the constant of speed of light be understood, the real mathematic of the Electromagnetic Theory, namely (c+v)(c-v) mathematic and the result of these. When I first began to instruct 15 years ago, the Alice Law was not this much comprehensive and advanced of course. But now, it is in a very developed and perfect situation. I sincerely advise you to read the parts of Alice Law 7 program and find out the Electromagnetic Theorys new mathematic and the new results that came together with it. You can download it or read online at www.aliceinphysics.com. Just from the information that you gather from this page, it is possible for you to discover so many valid information. But I want to remind that, the majority of this new information is already available at www.aliceinphysics.com.

The Alice Law is the future of the physics.

Han Erim

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Next Part: Byte Shift and Signal Speeds

Establish: December 2001